History of Computers

ENIAC( Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the first general-purpose electronic computer. It was a Turing-complete digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems.]

ENIAC was designed to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army’s Ballistic Research Laboratory. When ENIAC was announced in 1946 it was heralded in the press as a “Giant Brain”. It boasted speeds one thousand times faster than electro-mechanical machines, a leap in computing power that no single machine has since matched. This mathematical power, coupled with general-purpose programmability, excited scientists and industrialists. The inventors promoted the spread of these new ideas by teaching a series of lectures on computer architecture.

The ENIAC’s design and construction was financed by the United States Army during World War II. The construction contract was signed on June 5, 1943, and work on the computer began in secret by the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering starting the following month under the code name “Project PX”. The completed machine was announced to the public the evening of February 14, 1946 and formally dedicated the next day at the University of Pennsylvania, having cost almost $500,000 (nearly $6 million in 2010, adjusted for inflation). It was formally accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in July 1946. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947. There, on July 29, 1947, it was turned on and was in continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955.

ENIAC was conceived and designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania.[9] The team of design engineers assisting the development included Robert F. Shaw (function tables), Chuan Chu (divider/square-rooter), Thomas Kite Sharpless (master programmer), Arthur Burks (multiplier), Harry Huskey (reader/printer) and Jack Davis (accumulators).

Computer History
Computer History
Computer History
Description of Event


Konrad Zuse – Z1 Computer First freely programmable computer.


John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
ABC Computer
Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC.


Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper
Harvard Mark I Computer
The Harvard Mark 1 computer.


John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
ENIAC 1 Computer
20,000 vacuum tubes later…


Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn
Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube
Baby and the Williams Tube turn on the memories.


John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & Wiliam Shockley
The Transistor
No, a transistor is not a computer, but this invention greatly affected the history of computers.


John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
UNIVAC Computer
First commercial computer & able to pick presidential winners.


International Business Machines
IBM 701 EDPM Computer
IBM enters into The History of Computers.


John Backus & IBM
FORTRAN Computer Programming Language
The first successful high level programming language.

(In Use 1959)

Stanford Research Institute, Bank of America, and General Electric
The first bank industry computer – also MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) for reading checks.


Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
The Integrated Circuit
Otherwise known as ‘The Chip’


Steve Russell & MIT
Spacewar Computer Game
The first computer game invented.


Douglas Engelbart
Computer Mouse & Windows
Nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end.


ARPAnet The original Internet.


Intel 1103 Computer Memory The world’s first available dynamic RAM chip.


Faggin, Hoff & Mazor
Intel 4004 Computer Microprocessor
The first microprocessor.


Alan Shugart &IBM
The “Floppy” Disk
Nicknamed the “Floppy” for its flexibility.


Robert Metcalfe & Xerox
The Ethernet Computer Networking


Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & IBM 5100 Computers The first consumer computers.


Apple I, II & TRS-80 & Commodore Pet Computers More first consumer computers.


Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston
VisiCalc Spreadsheet Software
Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner.


Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby
WordStar Software
Word Processors.


The IBM PC – Home Computer
From an “Acorn” grows a personal computer revolution


MS-DOS Computer Operating System
From “Quick And Dirty” comes the operating system of the century.


Apple Lisa Computer The first home computer with a GUI, graphical user interface.


Apple Macintosh Computer The more affordable home computer with a GUI.


Microsoft Windows Microsoft begins the friendly war with Apple.

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