The Budget is a detailed plan for a measured period, setting goals and outlining resources to meet them. It also gives details of tax revenues and other receipts besides a general break-up of expenditure, allocation of plan outlays by sectors as well as by various ministries.
Important Budget Terms
Revenue Budget: It consists of the revenue receipts of the government (which is tax revenues plus other revenues) and the expenditure met from these revenues. It has two components: Revenue Receipt and Revenue Expenditure.
Capital Budget: It consists of capital receipts and payments. It also incorporates transactions in the Public Account. It has two components: Capital Receipt and Capital Expenditure.
Capital Expenditure: It consists of payments for acquisition of assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares etc, and loans and advances granted by the Central government to state and union territory governments, government companies, corporations and other parties.
Capital Receipt: The main items of capital receipts are loans raised by the government from public which are called market loans, borrowings by the government from the Reserve Bank of India and other parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign governments and bodies and recoveries of loans granted by the Central government to state and union territory governments and other parties. It also includes proceeds from disinvestment of government equity in public enterprises.
Expenditure Budget: It contains expenditure estimates made for a scheme or programme under both revenue and capital heads. These estimates are brought together and shown on a net basis at one place by major heads.
Finance Bill: This contains the government’s proposals for levy of new taxes, modification of the existing tax structure or continuance of the existing tax structure beyond the period approved by Parliament. It is submitted to Parliament along with the Budget for its approval.
Fiscal Deficit: It is the difference between the revenue receipts plus certain non-debt capital receipts and the total expenditure including loans (net of repayments). This indicates the total borrowing requirements of the government from all sources.
Monetised Deficit: It indicates the level of support extended by the Reserve Bank of India to the government’s borrowing programme.
Non-Plan Expenditure: It includes both revenue and capital expenditure on interest payments, the entire defence expenditure (both revenue and capital expenditure), subsidies, postal deficit, police, pensions, economic services, loans to public enterprises and loans as well as grants to state governments, union territory governments and foreign governments.
Plan Expenditure: It includes both revenue and capital expenditure of the government on the Central Plan, Central assistance to state and union territory plans. It forms a sizeable proportion of the total expenditure of the Central government.
Primary Deficit: It is the difference between fiscal deficit and interest payments.
Public Account: It is an account in which money received through transactions not relating to the Consolidated Fund is kept. Besides the normal receipts and expenditure of the government relating to the Consolidated Fund, certain other transactions enter government accounts in respect of which the government acts more as a banker, for example, transactions relating to provident funds, small savings collections, other deposits etc. Such money is kept in the Public Account and the connected disbursements are also made from it. Public Account funds do not belong to the government and have to be paid back some time or the other to the persons and authorities who deposited them. Parliamentary authorisation for payments from the Public Account is not required.
Revenue Deficit: It refers to the excess of revenue expenditure over revenue receipts. Revenue Expenditure: It is meant for the normal running of government departments and various services, interest charges on debt incurred by the government and subsidies. Broadly speaking, expenditure which does not result in creation of assets is treated as revenue expenditure. All grants given to state governments and other parties are also treated as revenue expenditure even though some of the grants may be for creation of assets.
Revenue Receipt: It includes proceeds of taxes and other duties levied by the Centre, interest and dividend on investments made by the government, fees and other receipts for services rendered by the government.
Appropriation Bill: It is presented to Parliament for its approval, so that the government can withdraw from the Consolidated Fund the amounts required for meeting the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund. No amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund till the Appropriation Bill is voted is enacted.
Balance of Payment
The statement that shows the transaction of the country’s trade and finance in terms of net outstanding receivable or payable from any other country with a certain period of time.
A legislative proposal draft is discussed and passed by both the houses of Parliament and then has to get an approval from the President and then finally it is a declared Act.
If and when in emergencies the Government at such times helps with funds which is not authorized by the Parliament because of urgent needs that may arise.
Consumer price index
It is a price index that features the rates of consumer goods
When a list of capital expenditure is planned and prepared annually it is termed Capital budget.
It is the tax that is put on imports and tariffs.