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Published On: Fri, Dec 2nd, 2016


Four Corners Monument
United States Four Corners Monument is the quadripoint meeting four states of US viz. Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. It is located in South-western United States and is the only point shared by four states in America. It is also a boundary between two semi-autonomous Native American governments viz. The Navajo Nation and Ute Mountain.

Reversal of Westerlies

ENSO results in reversal of trade winds not westerlies. A periodic disruption of normal sea surface and atmospheric circulation patterns in the Pacific Ocean is called El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The warm phase of ENSO (El Niño) is associated with the eastward movement of the Pacific warm pool, halting or reversal of the trade winds, a rise in sea level along the equator, a decrease in productivity along the west coast of South America, and, in very strong El Niños, worldwide changes in weather. El Niños fluctuate with the cool phase of ENSO (La Niña conditions), which are associated with cooler than normal water in the eastern tropical Pacific.
Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean consists of one gyre, the Indian Ocean (Majid) Gyre, which exists mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. It is named after Ahmad Bin Majid, the 15th-century Arab mariner. Following table shows the Oceans and their respective Gyres

The Coriolis effect influences the paths of moving objects on Earth and is caused by Earth s rotation. Because Earth s surface rotates at different velocities at different latitudes, objects in motion tend to veer to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The Coriolis effect is nonexistent at the equator but increases with latitude, reaching a maximum at the poles.


Bathymetry is the measurement of ocean depths and the charting of ocean floor topography. The varied bathymetry of the ocean floor was first determined using soundings to measure water depth. Later, the development of the echo sounder gave ocean scientists a more detailed representation of the sea floor. Today, much of our knowledge of the ocean floor has been obtained using various multibeam echo sounders or side-scan sonar instruments (to make detailed bathymetric maps of a small area of the ocean floor); satellite measurement of the ocean surface (to produce maps of the world ocean floor); and seismic reflection profiles (to examine Earth structure beneath the sea floor).

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